A fast and scalable alternative to Blockchains and DAGs is Radix. As a formal concept Radix is a decentralized ledger (DLT) of public trust lessness. Radix is not a sequence of bricks. The DAG is not Radix. Trustless and autonomous, Radix is. Smart contracts endorse Radix. Think about it as a blockchain without blocks (*Tempo’ is the data structure) built on a consensus algorithm that is distinct from everything you’ve seen before: logical time.
Radix is the culmination of six years of research and development and is the solution to the previously exposed challenges of scalability and decentralization, Radix is a DLT that is not1) Linear scalability a Blockchain and is not a DAG, it has its own entirely revolutionary mechanism (Tempo) and a process of consensus that enables Radix to build an incredibly secure and flexible framework for shared data storage and access. Radix has three guiding principles: linear scalability, developer delight, and true decentralization.
1) Linear scalability
You need to be able to scale to every single human and every single system simultaneously without bottlenecks to service the planet. Anything shy of that and you do not have a protocol that can be counted on by the planet.
This will need to be both extremely simple to index (to make the data structure usable) and massively sharded (cut into fragments) so that more machines could be installed to improve the network’s throughput as the demand for the network rose.
The Radix team discovered that it would not work to shut off the ad-hoc results. Instead, you already need to see how the data is going to be sliced. Without needing to re-index each time significant quantities of new data are inserted; you should be able to look at any piece of data and know where it resides in the data system. By pre-cutting the platform’s data structure into 18.4 quintillion shards, they did that. As a means of deciding where a certain piece of data lives in the shared space, they then use main reference fields, such as a public key. The consequence of this breakthrough is a data system that can scale from tiny data sets to one’s big enough to serve every entity and enterprise in the world linearly, without the overhead.
2) Trustworthy decentralization
No Master nodes, no Stakes, no Central Council, no Coordinator. If the protocol doesn’t operate without a middle, you’re not building a world network, you’re just building a company managed platform. Through establishing a permission less consensus mechanism that can be safely used in both small and large networks, Radix addresses the issue of centralization, protected by a resource that cannot be trivially purchased or faked within Radix: the passing of logical time.
Moreover, unlike other DLT systems, consensus does not extend to any case, only to those that clash. This enables the whole device, even on a large scale, to be extremely effective.
The passing of logical time depends on a principle called logical clocks, a logical clock
is a counter in very basic terms. On the Radix network, each node has its logical clock which it retains. The only rule that it must follow is that it must only count upwards strictly and must increase its counter by 1 every time an event is seen by the node.
This counter for a node is activated in Radix when it sees a valid occurrence that it has never seen before. The node must simply search its database, then increase its logical clock, mark the event with the new timestamp and ID, and then transfer it to the network. It must regularly make promises to ensure that it is impossible to mislead about the sequence of past events.
As no additional energy invested aside from dispute resolution, this passive consensus process is both very reliable and extremely energy efficient.
3) Developer delight
Radix’s mission is to give developers the very best tools to build and deploy DApps (decentralized applications). The internet was an enabling technology.
Why Radix is so cool?
Imagine a world where you can mine every computer, every phone, every modem, every television. Where each person may be part of the cryptocurrency’s consensus processor of the culture in which they believe, almost without really knowing it.
It will be easy to mine and will be open to everyone you will not need to have more computing capacity to mine than your neighbor, you will be randomly picked and everyone will be chosen sooner or later. You would not need any expensive instrument, just a phone with the software on it thanks to the technologies behind it.